In the fermentation process, various products are produced from pyruvic acids. These pyruvic acids are produced from glucose through glycolysis process. Several end products of fermentation are produced with the help of several bacteria. These end products of fermentation have been using to meet our various needs.
End products of fermentation:
The End Products of Fermentation are produced from different types of fermentation:
- Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced from alcohol fermentation (ethanol fermentation). They are produced by fungi, notably by yeast.
- Lactic acids are produced from homolactic acid fermentation. They are produced by Streptococcus and some species of Lactobacillus.
- Lactic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, acetoin, 2,3-butylene glycol, ethanol, and carbon dioxide are produced from heterolactic acid fermentation. They are produced by Enterobacter, Aeromonas, and Bacillus polymyxa.
- Propionic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid, and carbon dioxide are produced from Propionic acid fermentation. They are produced by Clostridium propionicum, Propionicum, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Neisseria, Veillonella, and Micromonospora.
- Lactic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, succinic acid, Hydrogen, ethanol, and carbon dioxide are produced from Mixed acid fermentation. They are produced by E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and Proteus.
- Butanol, butyric acid, acetone, isopropanol, acetic acid, hydrogen, ethanol, and carbon dioxide are produced from Butanol-Butyric Acid fermentation. They are produced by Butyribacterium, Zymosarcina maxima and Clostridium.
Industrial biochemicals (alcohols & solvents)
- Ethanol is produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces fragillis from fruit pomace, sweet sorghum, beet, com, carob pods. It is used as beer, wine, and fuel.
- Acetone, isopropanol, and butanol are produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum from molasses.
- Glycerol is produced by Saccharomyces sp. from molasses.
- Sorbitol is produced by Acetobacter sp.
- Propylene glycol is produced by Bacillus sp.
- Citric acid is produced by Aspergillus niger from sugarcane bagasse, fruit pomace, wheat bran.
- Lactic acid is produced by Lactobacills delbrueckii from sweet sorghum, sugarcane, glucose milk, and meat.
- Acrylic acid is produced by Bacillus sp.
- Acetic acid is produced by Acetobacter sp. from ethanol. It is used as vinegar.
- Propionic acid is produced by Propionibacterium shermanii.
- Fumaric acid is produced by Rhizopus sp.
- Gibberellic acid is produced by Gibberella fujikuroi from wheat bran.
- Glucoamylase is produced by Aspergillus niger / A. oryzae from cassava, wheat bran, corn.
- Rennin is produced by Mucor pusillus, Mucor miehei from wheat bran
- Amylase / neutral protease is produced by Bacillus subtilis from wheat bran, cassava.
- Cellulase is produced by Trichoderma reesei from wheat bran, wheat straw, Beet pulp, cellulosic biomass.
- Galactosidase is produced by Kluyveromyces laccis from whey + corn or wheat bran.
- Protease is produced by Penicillium caseicolum, Martierella renispora, from wheat bran, dried skim milk.
- Invertase is produced by Saccharmyces cerevisiae.
- Lipase is produced by lipolytica.
- Pectinases is produced by Aspergillus spp. / Rhizopus oryzae from fruit pomace, wheat bran, coffee pulp.
- Lactase is produced by Saccharomyces lactis / Rhizopus oryzae.
- Alkaline protease is produced by Bacillus licheniformis.
- Glucose isomerase is produced by Bacillus coagulans.
- L-Lysine is produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum.
- Glutamic acid is produced by Brevibacterium spp.
- Riboflavin is produced by Ashbya gossypii.
- Vitamin B12 is produced by Pseudomonas denitrificans, Propionibacterium shermanii.
- Sorbose (vitamin C or ascorbic acids) is produced by Gluconobacter from sorbitol.
- Dextran is produced by Leuconostoc mesenterodies.
- Xanthan gum is produced by Xanthomonas campestris.
- Bt-toxin (anti-insect larval compound) is produced by Bacillus thuringiensis.
- Single cell protein (SCP) is produced by Methanogenic bacteria, Spirulina sp. / Fusarium sp. from starchy or cellulosic biomass.
- Single cell oil (SCO) is produced by Rhizopus oryzae.
More Read: Fermentation Products – ELOSS.NET
- Penicillin is produced by Penicillium chrysogenum from sugarcane bagasse.
- Tetracycline is produced by Streptomyces viridifaciens from sweet potato residue.
- Iturin, surfactin is produced by Bacillus subeilis from soybean curd residue.
- Streptomycin, Neomycins, Tetracyclines, Amphoterecin-B, Kanamycins, Polyxins, and Actidione are produced by Streptomyces spp.
- Gramicidin – S is produced by Bacillus brevis.
- Polymixin – B is produced by Bacillus polymyxa.
- Cephalosporin is produced by Cephalosporium acremonium from barley.