Branches or Scope of Microbiology

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The scope of Microbiology includes the field or area of study where microbiologists can work or study or research.

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, and protozoa. These microorganisms are only visible under a microscope. Microorganisms are everywhere. These microorganisms play an important role in our lives. We use these microorganisms to make cheese, beer, vitamins, antibiotics, production of bread, enzymes, and many more. There are many pros and cons to microorganisms.


READ MORE:  10 Importances of Microbiology in Our Life


Branch or Scope of Microbiology:

There are a lot of fields or scope of microbiology where microbiologists can work

Pure microbiology:



It is an important branch of microbiology. Bacteriology is the study of bacteria that includes archaea and some related aspects of bacteria. The bacteriologists study, researches, and learn more about many different types of characteristics that contain (structure, biochemistry, genetics, and ecology) of bacteria. Bacteriologists must understand because it helps to prevent or treat such dangerous diseases caused by these microorganisms.



Mycology is a branch of microbiology that related to the study of fungi includes genetic and biochemical properties. Fungi is beneficial for us in many different ways such as a good source for tinder, food, entheogens, and traditional medicine. Do you know all mushrooms are fungi? Yes, you heard it right. However, not all fungi are not mushrooms. There are four types of fungi. These are the Chytridiomycota (chytrids), Basidiomycota (club fungi), Zygomycota (bread molds), and the Ascomycota (yeasts and sac fungi). Moreover, there are some diseases caused by fungi such as Aspergillosis, Blastomycosis, Fungal Eye Infections, and more. Microbiologists plays a great role to produce bioproducts by working or studying this scope of microbiology.



Phycology is a branch of microbiology and referred to as the sub-discipline of botany. It is the scientific study of algae and its characteristics. Algae are a large group of non-flowering photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms in the aquatic ecosystem. This scope microbiology is of great importance in industry as photosynthetic microorganisms use atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce various commercial biological products.




Virology is a study of viruses and important aspects of genetic material consisted of a protein coat. It is a subfield of microbiology. Virologists understand certain diseases and infections caused by viruses. Viruses are classified as four. These are animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and bacteriophages. This is a great scope of microbiology to work or study as the whole world experienced the pandemic COVID-19 in 2020.



Protozoology is a subfield of microbiology concerned with the scientific study of protozoa. Protozoa is an “animal-like” structure, mainly known as protists. As such, these microscopic eukaryotes exist as free-living organisms or parasites. Protozoologists mainly focus on their different types of respective characteristics and interactions with the environment, such as with parasites or free-living organisms. Some common protozoa are motile and heterotrophic.




Immunology is an important branch of medical and biological sciences that also includes microbiology. Immunology is the scientific study of the immune system that protects you from infections and other microorganisms. If your immune system fails to protect you, then you might end up with a certain disease, such as autoimmunity, hypersensitivity, Immune disorder, Immunodeficiency cancer, and allergy. Immunologists treat, diagnose, and manage different types of immunologic conditions and immunodeficiency diseases.


Microbial cytology-

Microbial cytology is the study of microorganisms. As such, Microbial cytology also analyzed details of cellular structures of microbes and how they formed and operate. It is also focused on genetics, regulation, growth, metabolism, and other aspects of cellular mechanisms.


Microbial physiology-

Microbial physiology is the scientific study concerned with microbial cell structures, microbial growth, and microbial metabolism function in microorganisms. These microorganisms are viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites includes in the study of Microbial physiology. Microbial physiology is also important in the field of functional genomics and metabolic engineering.


Microbial genetics-

Microbial genetics is a branch of microbiology and genetic engineering. Microbial genetics is a study of microorganisms for microbial genetics for different purposes. These microorganisms include archaea, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa are also subjects in this field. Microbial genetics also involves the usage of recombinant DNA technology and using the DNA sequence, thus creating DNA which contact with a host organism, for instance, cloning. Microbial genetics will be beneficial to increase product productivity, such as antibiotics and growth hormones, by Microbial technology. Microbial genetics can also help us understand various types of genetic diseases and to control diseases by a virus.



Microbial ecology-

Microbial ecology is a branch of microbiology. Microbial ecology is the scientific study of the ecology of microorganisms which includes their relationship with each other and their environment. The three main domains are Archaea, Eukaryota, and Bacteria. As such, viruses also include in the domains of life.




Microbial taxonomy-

Microbial taxonomy refers to the microorganisms that can be classified together because of their same characteristics and are separated from those microorganisms that have different characteristics. The science of biological classification as known as Taxonomy.




Cellular Microbiology-

Cellular Microbiology is a branch of cell biology and microbiology. Cellular Microbiology is the scientific study concerned with the functions and properties of microbial cells. Today the application of molecular techniques has established boundaries by the bacteriology, cell biology, intestinal pathophysiology, and immunology.


Molecular Microbiology-

Molecular Microbiology is a scientific study concerned with the physiological processes of microbes and molecular mechanisms. Moreover, Molecular Microbiology utilizes in the production of biotechnology products and medicines, for instance, antibodies and vaccines.


Applied Microbiology:



Medical Microbiology-

Medical Microbiology is a branch of medical science and a large subset of microbiology. Medical Microbiology is the scientific study concerned with the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of infectious diseases. Furthermore, this field requires various types of clinical applications of microbes for better conditions of health. The four common types of microorganisms that result in infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi, as well as prion one type of infectious protein. A medical microbiologist researches and understands the various characteristics of pathogens. The medical microbiologist study on microorganism’s transmission, mechanisms of infection, and growth.


Veterinary Microbiology-

Veterinary Microbiology is a branch of microbiology. Veterinary Microbiology is a scientific study that involves microbial diseases caused by the bacteria and viruses of domestic vertebrate animals such as fur-bearing animals, poultry, and livestock. However, fishes are an exception.


Public Health Microbiology-

Public Health Microbiology is the scientific study of microbes in health and disease that how to prevent or treat infectious diseases among the public. Industrial Microbiology is as much as important as medical biology. Nowadays this scope of microbiology attracts  great attention to microbiologists.




Industrial Microbiology-

Industrial Microbiology is a branch of practical microbiology and biotechnology where microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses are utilized by the industrial processes to make different kinds of products. For instance, wastewater treatment, food preservation, biopolymers, drugs, and bioremediation.



Pharmaceutical Microbiology-

Pharmaceutical Microbiology is a branch of microbiology. Nowadays this scope of microbiology attracts a great attention to microbiologists. Pharmaceutical Microbiology is the scientific study that concerned with the manufacture of healthcare products and pharmaceuticals to decrease the number of microorganisms such as exotoxin and endotoxin. Thus, making and ensuring pharmaceutical product sterile from microorganisms. Furthermore, Pharmaceutical Microbiology also researches and develops anti-infective agents, and microbes used in insulin, and human growth hormones.


Agriculture Microbiology-

Agriculture Microbiology is a branch of microbiology. Agriculture Microbiology is a scientific study that is involved with plant-related microbes and diseases. Agriculture Microbiology considers other different aspects of plant-related issues of microbes includes as soil fertility, soil nutrients, and microbial degradation of soil transformation. Farmers often think, bacteria and fungi are pests that destroy their crops, but it isn’t. As such, microbes are beneficial for soil to decompose organic matter and recycle plant material.


Plant Microbiology-

Plant Microbiology is the applied branch of microbiology. Plant Microbiology is a scientific study of diseases in plants that happens due to pathogens and environmental conditions.


Soil Microbiology-

Soil Microbiology is the branch of microbiology. Soil Microbiology is a scientific study that concerned with microorganisms in the soil, functions, and how it affects soil properties. Soil microorganisms categorized as bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa.



Food and Dairy Microbiology-

Food and Dairy act as a substrate in microbiology for microorganisms. Food and Dairy Microbiology is the scientific study of microbes that contaminate foods causing food spoilage. If food improperly cooked or stored can cause diseases by the pathogens. Furthermore, fermented foods such as yogurt, bread, wine, and cheese made from certain bacteria known as lactic acid bacteria.





Aero-microbiology is the scientific study of microbes that is present in the air known as bioaerosols such as bacteria and viruses. These bioaerosols are harmful to you when you inhale the air.



Microbial Biotechnology-

Microbial Biotechnology is the process of manufacturing large economically valuable products by using microorganisms in the industrial processes, or genetically engineered strains.


READ MORE:    Main Theme of Microbiology..



Vaccinology is a branch of microbiology. Vaccinology is the scientific study of vaccines that help your immune system to prevent from certain harmful bacteria and virus to replicate themselves in the body. Several types of vaccines are made by toxins that help your immune system to inactivate them. As a result, weakening the harmful bacteria or virus that is present is present in your body. Nowadays this scope of microbiology attracts great attention to microbiologists as the world are experiencing the pandemic COVID-19.


Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that utilizes powerful chemicals to kill cancerous cells in the body. As you know, when the cells grow and multiply uncontrollably it becomes worse. The drugs used in chemotherapy produced by certain microbes to stop growing cancerous cells in your body.

Environmental Microbiology-

Environmental Microbiology is the scientific study of anatomy and physiology of microorganism’s environmental behavior. Environmental Microbiology includes water, air, soil, and everything that consists of microbes. Nowadays this scope of microbiology attracts a great attention to microbiologists.


Water/Aquatic Microbiology-

Aquatic Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms and their environmental relations in the aquatic systems. Aquatic systems have many different kinds of animals, microscopic plants, bacteria, viruses, algae, and fungi.



What will you do after graduation?

After graduation (B.Sc, M.Sc or Ph.D) you can work as…




Industrial Microbiologist

Toxicity Analyst

Industrialist (Own business)

Bioinformatics Analyst

Genome sequencing Expert

Agriculture Microbiologist

Pharmaceutical Entrepreneur

Genetic Engineer

Bioprocess Engineer

Medical Microbiologist

Food Microbiologist



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Waste Valorization

Research Analyst

X-ray crystallography and data interpreter

Protein sequencing Expert

Environmental Microbiologist

Bioenergy and Biofuel





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4 thoughts on “Branches or Scope of Microbiology”

  1. Wow, this article is nice, my younger sister is analyzing such things, therefore I am going to
    let know her. Because she wants to study microbiology in her bachelor program .

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