20 Characteristics of Viruses

Viruses are one of the most numerous microorganisms on our earth and infect all types of cells (such as human cells, animal cells, plant cells, bacterial cells and fungal cells etc). So, viruses are interesting microbes to study for what they can tell us about the genetics and biochemistry of cellular mechanisms and about the process to develop a disease. Characteristics of virus may help you find a microorganism as virus. …

3 Types of exotoxins and list of exotoxins

Types of exotoxins and list of exotoxins

 

In this article, you can learn about different types of exotoxins and list of exotoxins. Exotoxins are proteins produced by both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. There are different types of exotoxins.  They are considered to be among the most lethal substances as they can easily disseminate in blood for their high solubility. A little amount of bacterial exotoxins is sufficient to be a lethal dose. For example, 1mg of botulinum toxins is enough to kill 1 million guinea pigs.

Role of bacteria in cancer therapy

Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world. Although a lot of research has been done to combat cancer, treatment of this disease didn’t give full hope to save the lives of cancer patients. Conventional chemotherapies used against cancer, have some drawbacks. For example, chemotherapeutic agents that kill cancer cells, have a non-specific toxic effect to the normal cells. …

Is the phage virus harmful to humans

Bacteriophages are of two types: lytic and lysogenic bacteriophages. Lytic phages are virulent, causing lysis of bacterial cells, allowing lytic phage progeny to be released into the environment. Due to their lytic properties specific to bacteria, they are supposed to be used as alternative therapeutics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. On the other hand, lysogenic phages are the viruses that integrate their whole genome into bacterial chromosome and maintain their DNA replications along with bacterial genome within bacterial cells. …

HIV treatment: A new drug developed

Since the discovery of HIV virus, scientists have been trying to find a better  HIV treatment. Although few antiretroviral drugs have been developed, they couldn’t give full hope to the patient.

Recently, a new drug “Gammora”  has been developed by Israeli scientists, which can eradicate up to 99% of HIV infected cells. The drug gammora in its first human trial has been succeeded to get this positive result.
Researchers of Zion Medical, an Israeli Biotech Company developed this drug and they proved that the drug can eliminate up to 99% of viral load even within first four week of treatment. …

10 phage used in the food industry

Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern of this world due to misuse and rapid use of antibiotics. This problem causes scientist to find new strategies to combat bacterial pathogens. As many studies have been done for this purpose, phage therapy is mostly discussed topic at present days.

Frederick Twort in 1915 and Fe’lix d’He’relle in 1917 first observed that viruses have antibacterial activities. Since then, phages had been being used against dome bacteria. But due to discovery of antibiotics in 1929 and its rapid emergence in 1940, the concept of phage application died out in west. …