Endosymbiosis is a relationship where one organism lives inside the other and both are benefited. It is thought that ancestral eukaryotic cells consumed aerobic bacteria and photosynthetic bacteria leading them to evolve into mitochondria and chloroplast respectively. Endosymbiotic theory stats that, the modern eukaryotic cells (mitochondria ) evolved in steps through inter-cooperation into cells from a nuclear line of descendants of chemoorganotrophic and phototrophic symbionts. It states that Mitochondria and Chloroplast were free-living bacteria that established residency in the primitive eukaryotic cells, eventually yielding the modern eukaryotic cell. Symbiosis is a specific type of relationship in which organisms from two different species live in a close, dependent relationship take advantages from each other.
Antibiotic resistance is increasing day by day over the world and this will cause a dramatic danger to the human civilization. It is now suspected that millions of people will die due to the increasing antibiotic resistance by 2050. Therefore, this increased resistance emphasizes the researchers to find new antimicrobial agents for combating microbial diseases. This article describes 15 antibiotic alternatives some of which may have strong antimicrobial effectiveness against microbial infection.
Vaccine is an immunomodulator that prevents microbial infection. The first vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner.
The vaccine came to us through an excellent history. The concept of vaccine came from a milkmaid woman. She informed Edward Jenner that “she had suffered from cowpox and never get smallpox”. This information leads Jenner to an experiment for developing vaccine.
In 1796, he collected scrapings from cowpox blister and injected into a healthy young boy. A few days later, the boy became sick and recovered soon and never got either cowpox or smallpox.
Phage viruses have attracted a great attention recently as it is now considered one of the best alternatives to antibiotics.
Phages are the viruses that can replicate in the bacterial host cells, kill pathogenic bacterial cells, and are able to produce new lytic phages to keep pace with the mutation of pathogens. However, the replacement of antibiotics by phages in the treatment of bacterial diseases encounters several controversies because of the following reasons:
Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer. In this context, the last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated.
Viruses are one of the most numerous microorganisms on our earth and infect all types of cells (such as human cells, animal cells, plant cells, bacterial cells and fungal cells etc). So, viruses are interesting microbes to study for what they can tell us about the genetics and biochemistry of cellular mechanisms and about the process to develop a disease. Characteristics of virus may help you find a microorganism as virus.
Exotoxins are proteins produced by both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. There are different types of exotoxin. They are considered to be among most lethal substances as they can easily disseminate in blood for their high solubility. A little amount of exotoxins is sufficient to be a lethal dose. For example, 1mg of botulinum toxins is enough to kill 1 million guinea pigs.
Bacteriophage therapy is now considered to be the best alternative therapeutics to antibiotic treatment. Although phage therapy was started in 1919, the concept of phage therapy died out in the 1940s due to the production of antibiotics in large amount.
Phage therapy is the use of phage viruses (bacteriophage) to kill bacterial pathogens as well as drug-resistant bacteria that cause life-threatening infection in the human body. Phage therapy was started in 1919, a few years after the discovery of phage by Frederick Twort (1915) and Felix d’He’relle (1917). But a decade later, due to the discovery of first antibiotic penicillin and emergence of pharmaceutical antibiotics in large quantities, the concept of phage therapy died out by 1940s in west Europe.
Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world. Although a lot of research have been done to combat cancer, treatment of this disease didn’t give full hope to save lives of cancer patients. Conventional chemotherapies used against cancer, have some drawbacks. For example, chemotherapeutic agents that kill cancer cells, have non-specific toxic effect to the normal cells.