The increased rate of foodborne disease has become great concern over the world. Every year millions of people are infected with foodborne pathogens, get hospitalized and die due to the consumption of foods along with variety of foodborne pathogens transmitted onto foods. There are several bacteria that cause foodborne disease associated with various food, we consume evryday. In this context several food borne bacteria have been discussed along with the foods they found and the disease they cause.
1. Bacillus cereus
Bacillus cereus – a food-borne pathogen- causes intestinal infection or food poisonings. This bacteria grows well on various foods such as milk, cheese, cereal, rice, red pepper and fermented food. More than 104 cfu/g of B. cereus consumed with food are enough to cause disease in human body. The diseases include diarrhea and vomiting. So, be serious about B. cereus.
2. Enterobacter sakazakii
Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes 40-80% mortality rate in infant. It causes infection in intestine and nervous system resulting life-threatening effect in human body. Milk powder and other infant formula contains this bacteria. Other food sources such as cereal fruits vegetables milk meat and fish also support the growth of this bacteria.
3. Escherichia coli O157:H7
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one of the major foodborne bacterial pathogen, causing human gastrointestinal disease. It causes contamination of green leafy vegetables and fruits. People get infected with this bacteria by consuming these vegetables and foods.
4. Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes is a major food borne pathogen that causes meningitis and septicemia. It often causes fatal death. Cheese is one of the major foods that harbors this pathogens. Chesee specially soft cheese support the growth of listeria.
Salmonella spp causes a common intestinal infection called salmonellosis. This disease includes diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, chills, fever and headache etc. Raw milk, cheese, raw meat, raw eggs, fruits and vegetables are good media for salmonella growth.
The genus Shigella is a food borne bacterial pathogen. It has four types of species: S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, S. sonnei, and S. boydii. This genera is responsible for severe intestinal infection called shigellosis. The symptoms of this disease are diarrhea (sometimes bloody diarrhea), fever and abdominal pain.
7. Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major cause of intestinal infection. This infection is occurred by consuming milk cheese, and other dairy product contaminated with this bacteria. A little concentration of 103 cfu/ml of S. aureus in cheese can produce enterotoxin A, thereby causing vomiting and diarrhea.
8. Yersinia enterocolitica
Yersinia enterocolitica is a common food borne bacterial pathogen found on raw pork, ready to eat pork and milk. It causes Yersiniosis which is a zoonotic infection. The symptoms of this disease includes septicemia, enterocolitis, fever, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and mesenteric lymphadenitis.
9. Clostridium perfringes
Clostridium perfringes is a major foodborne pathogen. It secretes enterotoxins during spore formulation causing diarrhea and abdominal cramp. It also releases alpha toxins when poultry is infected with it. The bacterium causes several disease such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), necrotic enteritis, and gastrointestinal infections in humans.
10. Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni is a causative agent of human campylobacteriosis. The symptoms of campylobacteriosis are fever, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and malaise. The main cause of this diseases are the consumption of undercooked poultry meat, unpasteurized milk and water contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni.