What is vaccine? Types of vaccine.

Vaccine is an immunomodulator that prevents microbial infection. The first vaccine was discovered by Edward Jenner.

The vaccine came to us through an excellent history. The concept of vaccine came from a milkmaid woman. She informed Edward Jenner that “she had suffered from cowpox and never get smallpox”. This information leads Jenner to an experiment for developing vaccine.

In 1796, he collected scrapings from cowpox blister and injected into a healthy young boy. A few days later, the boy became sick and recovered soon and never got either cowpox or smallpox.

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8 controversies about phage therapy

Phage viruses have attracted a great attention  recently as it is now considered one of the best alternatives to antibiotics.
Phages are the viruses that can replicate in the bacterial host cells, kill pathogenic bacterial cells, and are able to produce new lytic phages to keep pace with the mutation of pathogens. However, the replacement of antibiotics by phages in the treatment of bacterial diseases encounters several controversies because of the following reasons:

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10 mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Bacteria

Antibiotic resistance is now considered to be a great curse to the present world. Researcher suspected that millions of people will die due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance by 2050. There are lots of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. All the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance can be narrowed into two part; mutation and horizontal gene transfer.

In this context, both type of antibiotic resistance mechanisms will be discussed. The last mechanism belongs to horizontal gene transfer-mediated resistance and most of the other mechanisms of antibiotic resistance are mutation-mediated.

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20 Characteristics of Viruses

Viruses are one of the most numerous microorganisms on our earth and infect all types of cells (such as human cells, animal cells, plant cells, bacterial cells and fungal cells etc). So, viruses are interesting microbes to study for what they can tell us about the genetics and biochemistry of cellular mechanisms and about the process to develop a disease. Characteristics of virus may help you find a microorganism as virus.

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