Exotoxins are proteins produced by both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. There are different types of exotoxin. They are considered to be among most lethal substances as they can easily disseminate in blood for their high solubility. A little amount of exotoxins is sufficient to be a lethal dose. For example, 1mg of botulinum toxins is enough to kill 1 million guinea pigs.
Bacteriophage therapy is now considered to be the best alternative therapeutics to antibiotic treatment. Although phage therapy was started in 1919, the concept of phage therapy died out in the 1940s due to the production of antibiotics in large amount.
Phage therapy is the use of phage viruses (bacteriophage) to kill bacterial pathogens as well as drug-resistant bacteria that cause life-threatening infection in the human body. Phage therapy was started in 1919, a few years after the discovery of phage by Frederick Twort (1915) and Felix d’He’relle (1917). But a decade later, due to the discovery of first antibiotic penicillin and emergence of pharmaceutical antibiotics in large quantities, the concept of phage therapy died out by 1940s in west Europe.
Cancer is one of the major causes of death in the world. Although a lot of research have been done to combat cancer, treatment of this disease didn’t give full hope to save lives of cancer patients. Conventional chemotherapies used against cancer, have some drawbacks. For example, chemotherapeutic agents that kill cancer cells, have non-specific toxic effect to the normal cells.
Bacteriophages are of two types: lytic and lysogenic bacteriophages. Lytic phages are virulent, causing lysis of bacterial cells, allowing lytic phage progeny to be released into the environment. Due to their lytic properties specific to bacteria, they are supposed to be used as alternative therapeutics against multi-drug resistant bacteria. On the other hand, lysogenic phages are the viruses that integrate their whole genome into bacterial chromosome and maintain their DNA replications along with bacterial genome within bacterial cells.
Since the discovery of HIV virus, scientists have been trying to find a better HIV treatment. Although few antiretroviral drugs have been developed, they couldn’t give full hope to the patient.
Recently, a new drug “Gammora” has been developed by Israeli scientists, which can eradicate up to 99% of HIV infected cells. The drug gammora in its first human trial has been succeeded to get this positive result.
Researchers of Zion Medical, an Israeli Biotech Company developed this drug and they proved that the drug can eliminate up to 99% of viral load even within first four week of treatment.
Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern of this world due to misuse and rapid use of antibiotics. This problem causes scientist to find new strategies to combat bacterial pathogens. As many studies have been done for this purpose, phage therapy is mostly discussed topic at present days.
Frederick Twort in 1915 and Fe’lix d’He’relle in 1917 first observed that viruses have antibacterial activities. Since then, phages had been being used against dome bacteria. But due to discovery of antibiotics in 1929 and its rapid emergence in 1940, the concept of phage application died out in west.
Clostridium difficle infection has become a great cause of concern in the present world, and its antibiotic resistance is increasing day by day owing to the misuse and rapid use of antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that there is a strong association of CDAD or Clostridium difficle associated diarrhea with the use of wide spectrum antibiotics such as Clindamycin, cephalosporin penicillin and fluoroquinolone.